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Turmeric

We are all aware about the medicinal properties of turmeric and its importance in cooking as a condiment. Providing below comprehensive information about turmeric cultivation
What is turmeric?
Scientific name of turmeric  Curcuma longa
The family of Turmeric is Zingiberaceae
origin  South East Asia
Turmeric is used as a spice or condiment condiment
The edible part of turmetic is  Rhizome
The main pigment found in rhizome of turmeric is Curcumin (1.8 to 7.9 percent)
information about countries producing turmeric
Largest producer of turmeric in the world  India
The percentage of total production of turmeric from India is 70 to 80 percent
Indian turmeric is considered as the best turmeric in the world because of its high curcumin percentage
Turmeric is a traditional export commodity from India and ranks 4th 
Major countries importing turmeric from India are  UAE and USA
Leading states producing turmeric in India are  Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and Maharashtra
Information about climatic and soil requirement of in turmeric cultivation 
Type of climate required for turmeric Hot and Humid
optimum temperature range for turmeric is  20 to 30 degree Celcous
Rainfall requirement of turmeric is  100 to 200 cms annually
best soil for turmeric cultivation sandy loam
Turmeric is sensitive to water logging and alkalinity
Crop duration of turmeric is 7 to 9 months depending on varieties
Information on Varieties and species of turmeric
varieties of turmeric developed by Indian Institute of Spices research, Kerala are IISR Aleppey supreme, IISR kedaram, IISR Prabha, IISR Pratibha, Suvarna and Sudarsana
species of turmeric used for the preparation of kum kum and is known as kasturi is Curcuma aromatica
best curing percentage is obtained form which species Curcuma longa
High percentage of curcumin is fpund in variety named Varna (7.9 percent)
Information about cultivation practices of turmeric
which method of planting is suitable for turmeric cultivation Bed system 
The ideal.spacing between two beds of 1 metre width and 15 cms height is 50 cms
Best treatment to kill pests and diseases in soil before planting turmeric rhizomes in Bed system is Soil Solarization
commercial method of turmeric propagation is  Rhizome propagation
Mother rhizomes required for planting 1 ha area 2000 to 2500 kg per Ha
Number of days taken for start to end of Germination of rhizomes in turmeric is starting at 15 to 20 days after olanting and all rhizome germination completed till 60 days after planting
best time for planting of turmeric June to August
spacing followed in turmeric 45 x 20 cms in heavy soils and 30 x 15 cms in light soils
Depth at which Rhizomes are sown in bed system of planting 5 to 10 cms in bed system
fertilizer management in turmeric
Recommended fertilizer dose if turmeric is taken as sole crop 125:40:40 NPK Kg/ Ha
Top dressing of Nitrogen should be done at  120 days after planting (25 percent of the recommended dose)
crop rotation and intercropping
crops that can be taken as intercrops in turmeric  Maize and chilles
The plantation crops in which turmeric can be raised as an intercrop are Coconut and Arecanut
Crops with which turmeric is taken as mixed crops  Castor, Maize, Onion, Brinjal, Tomato
crop rotation of turmeric is done with crops like Rice, Sugarcane, Ginger millet etc
pests and diseases in turmeric
Pest occuring in turmeric is Shoot borer which Can be controlled by fortnight spraying of 0.5 percent neem oil
scientific name of shoot borer is Conogethes sp
chemical control of shoot borer in turmeric is Spray Malathion 0.1% at monthly interval from July to October.
Major disease of turmeric is  Leaf spot
Causal organism of leaf spot fungus called Taphrina sp
for the control of leaf spot disease  Spray 0.2% Dithane M 45
causal orgamism of rhizome rot fungus named pythium sp
disease which can affetc turmeric in storage is Rhizome rot
Control of Rhizome rot  Dipping of rhizomes in diathane m45 for 30 minutes before sowing and storage amd soil drenching 
Harvesting and  Yield
process of boiling of fresh rhizomes in water and drying in the sun Curing
Boiling of turmeric is done in boiling water till 45 to 60 mins till froth and typical odour comes our
Cooking of turmeric in boiling water has to be done within 2 to 3 days of harvesting
Drying period of turmeric after boiling 10 to 15 days on 5 to 7 cms thick bamboo mats
To impart attractive colour to turmeric, soiultion is added during polishing by mechanical drums, this solution is ckmposed of  Composition of emulsion for colour coating of 100kg of half boiled turmeric is Alum 0.04kg, turmeric powder 2kg, castor seed oil 0.14kg, sodium bisulphate 30g, concentrated hydrochloric acid 30ml
Expected yield in turmeric form one hectare area is  20000 kgs to 23000 kgs