Soil Science |


Soil science is a very important branch of agriculture

There is a seperate branch of study for almost every aspect in agricilture viz.

Agronomy for study of cereal, pulses, millet crops,

horticulture for study of fruit, vegetable and flower crops

Plant pathology for study of plant diseases

Plant entomology for study of insect pests of plants

Microbiology for study of micro-organisms in agriculture

Genetics and Plant biotechnology for study of genes and their applications

Plant physiology for the study of processes of plants like photosynthesis, respiration etc

Similarly, soil science studies the soil in relation to agriculture..!

Also read our other related articles about ‘Soil Science’

Soil Health Card

Soil texture: importance, textural classes

Soil classification

Soil groups of India

Definition of soil science

Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth.

It Includes study of soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils

Branches of Soil Science

Due to this importance of soil, scientists divide soil science into various branches for easy understanding of various soil phenomenon

There are 8 branches of soil science

These include

  • Soil Physics
  • Soil Chemistry
  • Soil Biology
  • Soil Mineralogy
  • Soil Fertility
  • Soil Genesis and Classification (Pedology)
  • Soil Survey
  • Soil Technology
  • Edaphology

Soil Physics

Soil has a mechanical behavior. By mechanical behavior, it means soil has physical properties and through which it control physical process in and through the soil. There is a need to measure that control of soil over various physical processes and for this, soil physics is the branch of soil science that focuses on this phenomenon.

Soil Chemistry

This branch of soil science deals with the study of chemical properties and composition of soil. It also studies the chemical processes that takes place in soil.

Soil Biology

This branch deals with the soil ecology. In this, scientists study the role of living organisms in biological transformations that take place in soil.

Soil Mineralogy

The study of minerals present in the soil is focused in soil mineralogy. It also includes the study of contribution made by those minerals in soil physical, chemical, biological and fertility and their relation to the genesis of soil.

Soil Fertility

The status of nutrients present in the soil and the ability of soil to provide these nutrients to the crops or plants for optimum growth under finest environmental conditions like temperature, light etc.

Soil Genesis and Classification (Pedology)

The study of weathering of rocks and minerals and soil formation is studied under this branch of soil science. It also includes the classification of soil in recognized manner.

Soil Survey

Systematic analysis and examination of soil in the laboratories as well as in fields is studied in soil survey. It also includes the study of adaptability of soils to various crops in different areas and also interpretation of soil according to soil productivity under different management systems.

Soil Technology

It is an applied side of the soil science. It deals with the study of principles and the practices of soil erosion and conservation. It also deals with the soil health or soil problems that include salinity, sodic (alkaline), acidic, degradation, water logging etc


Edaphology includes the study of how soil influences humankind’s use of land for plant growth as well as people’s overall use of the land. It basically deals with the study of plants in relation to agriculture

Further reading




Author: agristudent

Team Agristudent is a young and dynamic team of Agriculture specialists who have acquired specialised knowledge in their respective subjects. Their mission is to create a unique online encyclopedia of agriculture, which can be useful to millions around the world as an online reference library

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