India is a huge country. India has varied geographical conditions. There are many types of soils found in india due to the different prevailing agroclimatic conditions. The type of soils found in india have been grouped as below-
1. Red soils:
They are found on large scale in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, eastern part of Madhya pradesh to Chota Nagpur and Odisha
They are found in small parts of UP, Bihar, WB and Rajasthan.
They originate from crystalline, metamorphic rocks, which consist of granites, gneisses and schist’s,
Their colour is red or reddish brown
They are formed either in situ or from the decomposed rock materials washed down to lower level by rain
They are light textured
They have porous and friable structure.
They have neutral to acid reaction
They are deficient in Nitrogen, humus, phosphorus and lime.
2. Lateritic soils
These are commonly found on the low hills in eastern AP, Kerala, eastern MP, Odisha, Assam and Ratnagiri district of maharashtra
They are formed under in situ condition due to high rainfall with alternating wet and dry periods.
They are generally reddish yellow in colour.
They are low in N, P, K, lime and magnesium. They are formed due to the process of laterization in which silica is removed while Fe and Al remain behind in the upper layers.
3. Black soils:
They are found Majorly in areas of MS, MP and parts of AP, Gujarat and TN.
They are Highly clayey.
They have clay percentage ranging from 35 to 60% and sometimes even up to 80%.
They are dark colored
They are characterised by forming deep cracks under dry conditions and swell under humid conditions.
They have low permeability
They are neutral to slightly alkaline in Ph.
They have High CEC, high content of K, exchangeable Ca and Mg.
They are poor in organic matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus.
The clay is mainly montmorillonite type in black soils.
Due to the prrsence of montmorollonite type of clay they become soft on wetting and contract on drying.
Black soil is known as regur soil or black cotton soil.
They are further catagorised as Very deep (More than 90 cm depth), Deep (45 – 90 cm), moderately deep (22.5 to 45 cm), Shallow (7.5 to 22.5 cm) and very shallow (below 7.5 cm depth).
The black color of Black colour is due to the presence of titaniferrous magnetite compound.
4. Alluvial soils:
Alluvial soils are called alluviums.
Alluvial soils occur along river plains.
They are more prominently observed in Indo-gangeric plains, Brahmaputra valley, Coastal areas of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, TN, AP, Odisha and WB.
They are formed by the depositional work of river.
They do not show any prominent profile development.
They vary in nature and properties which depend on sediments from which they develop, the parent material in the respective catchments area and the place of deposition in valleys.
They are mostly grayish in colour,
They have poor drainage.
They are acidic but develop into saline and alkali soils in dry regions.
They are further sub-divided into: Old, Recent, Lacustrine, Coastal and Deltaic alluviums.
Desert soils form a major part of Rajasthan, Southern part of Haryana and Punjab, northern part of Gujarat
They are formed in the regions which receive 50 cm to less than 10 cm rainfall with high evaporation
They are formed as a result of physical weathering
These are subject to severe wind and water erosion
Such soils have ample soluble salts.
They are low in N and organic matter
They have a high pH range
6. Saline and alkaline soils:
Saline and alkaline soils occur in semi-arid areas of Bihar, UP, Punjab, Rajasthan Coastal and Deccan Canal Tract of Maharashtra.
These soils show white incrustation of salts of Ca, Mg and Na on the surface
They have a very poor drainage
Such soils are infertile
7. Peaty and marshy soils:
They are found in Kerala, Coastal tracts of Odisha, Sunderban area of WB, Coast of TN and in parts of Bihar and UP.
The peaty and Marshy Soils are black in color.
They have a high clay percentage
They are highly acidic (pH 3.5) and contain 10 to 40% organic matter
Drainage is poor
Such soils are formed when the water table is high