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Why seed and seed industry are significant in India?

Seed is the basic and most critical input for sustainable agriculture

The response of all other inputs depends on quality of seeds to a large extent

It is estimated that the direct contribution of quality seed alone to the total production is about 15 – 20% depending upon the crop and it can be further raised up to 45% with efficient management of other inputs

Thus the agricultural sector is highly dependent on the availability of quality seeds for a bumper yield

Therefore, in order to increase the quantity and quality of produce, efforts are made at all levels to introduce enhanced varieties of seeds with the help of advance technology and modern agricultural methods

In India, agriculture is the dominant occupation, which secures abundant opportunities for the seed market.

India is the fifth largest seed market across the globe

The Indian seeds market reached a value of US$ 4.1 Billion in 2018, exhibiting a CAGR of 15.7% during 2011-2018

The Indian seeds market is further expected to grow at a CAGR of 13.6% during 2019-2024, reaching a value of US$ 9.1 Billion by 2024

Currently, the ‘grain seeds’ represent the largest seed type and account for more than a half of the total seed production

Other major seed types include oil, vegetable and fruit seeds

What are the initiatives taken by Indian govt towards development of Seed Industry in India?

The following policy initiatives have been taken by the Govt of India for development of seed industry

Enactment of the Seeds Act, 1966
•   Seed Review Team-SRT (1968)
•   National Commission on

Agriculture’s Seed Group (1972)
•   Launching of the World Bank aided National Seeds Programme (1975-85) in three phases leading to the creation of State Seeds Corporations, State Seed Certification Agencies, State Seed Testing Laboratories, Breeder Seed Programmes etc
•   Seed Control Order (1983)
•   Creation of the Technology Mission on Oilseeds & Pulses (TMOP)  in 1986 now called as The Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM).
•   Production and Distribution Subsidy
•   Distribution of Seed Mini-kits
•   Seed Transport Subsidy Scheme (1987)
•   New Policy on Seed Development (1988)
•   Seed Bank Scheme (2000)
•   National Seeds Policy (2002)
•   The Seeds Bill (2004)
•   Formulation of National Seed Plan (2005)
•   National Food Security Mission (2007)
•   Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (2007)

National Seeds Policy, 2002: Thrust Areas are
–  variety development
–  plant variety protection
–  seed production
–  quality assurance
–  seed distribution and marketing
–  infrastructure facilities
–  transgenic plant varieties
–  import of seeds and planting materials
–  seed exports
–  promotion of domestic private sector seed industry
– strengthening of the  monitoring system

Seeds Bill, 2004: Salient Features

Registration of kinds and varieties of Seeds etc.
– Evaluation of performance
– Compensation to Framers
– Registration of Seed Producers and Processing Units
–  Seed dealers to be Registered

Regulation of Sale of Seed and Seed Certification

Seed Analysis and Seed Testing

Export and Import of Seeds and Planting Material

Offences and Punishment

What are the seed classes recognized in the system of seed production in India?

The seed production system in India is mainly based on “limited generation system for multiplication of seeds in a phased manner”

The major seed classes and steps are as follows

Seed Classes