Rose cultivation: Package and practices
Rose is one of the oldest cultivated flower having fragnance..!
Rose cultivation is a very important topic since Roses are used as Loose flower, cut flower, perfumery industry, bedding purpose, medicinal and cosmetic industry, colour making, garland, decoration, etc.
You may also like to read – Marigold Cultivation: profitable techniques; Comprehensive study notes| agristudent.com
You may also like to read – Gerbera
Earliest direct references to Rose Cultivation
The relegious book in which Roses have a mention since historic times – Bible
The people who cultivated roses even before the birth of Christ as per the archeological findings are – Palestinians
The phenomenon of developement of present day important varieties of roses is – Natural Hybridisation over centuries
The Country of which rose is a national flower are – England
Father of Modern roses
The flower which is considered as a father of modern roses is – Crimson China Rose
The earliest hybrids which were introduced from china to Europe were hybrids between – R. odorata and R. gigantea
The earliest hybrid tea rose which was developed by M.Guilot of France by open pollination was – La France
The number of species of roses present in various countries all over the world – 120 species
Out of 120 species of roses present all over the world, the number of rose species which have played a major role in development and popularisation of garden roses in the world is – only eight species
Family of rose is Rosaceae
Area and Distribution of Roses
The countries where roses have been cultivated aince ancient times for perfume production are – France, Cyprus, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Morocco, USA and Bulgaria
In India, the region in which various wild varieties of roses have been found is – Himalayan ranges
The places where maximum cultivation of roses in India is concentrated are – Aligarh, Kannauj, Ghazipur, Ballia and Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh, at Haldighati in Rajasthan, Chandigarh and in Tamil Nadu
The major rose producing states in India are – Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh
Objectives of Rose cultivation
For Cut flower
The highest demand of commercial roses throughout the world is for – cut flowers
The main use if cut flowers is – for vase and table decoration
for Garden Display
The qualities of roses which make them suitable as garden plants is – hardy, various colours, variations in growth and forms
Roses can be used in gardens as – bushes, standards, climbers, hedges and edges, hangers and in rock gardens
For use as Pot plants
Roses in pot plabts are used to decorate – both the indoors and outdoorsf
For manufacturing rose water
The part of flower from which rise water is extracted – Petals of rose flower
The important property of Rose water due to which it is used often used in eye lotions and eye drops is – property of body cooling and soothing
Other uses of rose water include – Uses in drinking water, sprinkling on the guests at weddings and other social functions.
For Rose oil
Important oil obtained from rose petals is – Rose oil
Bulgarian rose cultivation
The rose which is largely used in perfuming soaps and cosmetics is -Bulgarian rose otto
The bulgarian rose cultivation technique fully focuses of growing bulgarian roses for scent production through essential oils for using in soaps and cosmetics.
The most important property of Gulkand is – cooling properties as Tonic and Laxative
Dried rose petals are known as -pankhuri
Pankhuris are used occassionaly for preparing – sweetened cold drinks
For making Gul-roghan
The hair oil prepared from from rose petals by effleurage with wet sesamum seeds is – Gul Roghan
For use of Rose syrup as Source of Vitamins
Rose syrup contains – ascorbic acid
every 100 g of rose syrup contains – 150 mg of ascorbic acid
Other fruits in which ascorbic acid is present is – 50mg in fresh orange juice, 20 mg in tomatoes and 5 mg in apples.
For other uses of Rose
Other uses of roses include its use for – making pot-pourri, conserves, rose vinegar, rose petal wine, jams, jellies etc.
Botany of Rose
The stem of rose is – prickly.
The leaves arrangement of rose is – alternate and pinnately compound.
The fleshly berry like fruit of rose is known as – hip.
Infloroscence present in rose is known as – corymbs, paniculate or solitary form.
Rose Cultivation techniques
Climate required for rose cultivation
Most important factor required to regulate the growth of Rose – is Temperature
Optimum day temepratures required for good flower yield is – 20 to 25 degree Celcius
Night temperatures suitable for rose is – 18 to 20 degree Celcius
Minimum light duration required for good flower yield is – 12 hours
If light duratiin is less than 12 hours during flowering then – it leads to lower number of flowers and the flowers are of inferior quality
Most important climatic factors that plays an important role in incidence of pests and diseases affecting the growth and flowering is – Humidity
The diseases of rose which are associated with humidity is – relative humidity.
Season of Rose planting
Can rose be grown throughout the year- yes
The best planting time for rose for plains is – between September and October
The best planting time for rose in hills is – during October-November or February-March.
Soil requirement in rose cultivation
The ideal soil for rose cultivation is – medium loam having sufficient organic matter, with a pH of 6.0 and 7.5.
If the soil is deficit of organic matter then – 10 to 12 per cent of additional organic matter may be added to it.
Land preparation in rose cultivation rose
Land preparatiin required for rose cultivation is – beds/ plots of 1- 1.5m wide and 30-40m long should be prepared
Planting Distance or spacing
The planting distance depends on – types of roses and location.
Planting distance for cut flower production is – 60 x 30 cm
Normal spacing of roses is – 60 x 60 cm spacing
Cut flower production – 60 x 30 cm
Oil extraction – 2.5 x 0.5 m
Vigorously growing cultivars. 60 x 75 cm / 75 x 75 cm
Polyanthas – 45 cm
Miniatures – 30 cm
Climbing types – 3 m
Rose farming project: Profitable cultivars
There are different classes of roses according to the type of flowers they bear.
They are as follows
(A) Hybrid Tea
Most important classes if rose is – Hybrid tea
The main characteristics of hybrid Tea roses are –
The flower buds of this class are longer and look beautiful.
The flowers are slow opening and hence can be kept in vases for a longer time.
The flower spikes are also longer.
Flowers of wide range of colours are available in this class but red, orange, yellow and some other dark colours are more preferred in the market
Varieties of Red Hybrid Tea roses
Varieties of red hybrid tea rises are – First Red, Avon, Happiness, Mr. Lincoln, Raktagandha, Black Lady, Montezuma, etc.
Varieties of Yellow
They include varities like Aalsmeer Gold, Gold Medal, Golden Star, Golden Time, Yellow Success, Pusa Sonia
Super Star, Summer Hoilday, President and Grand Gala
Anvil Spark, Mudhosh, Double Delight, Supriya, Abhisarika, Kiss of Fire, Tata Centenary
Avon, Granda, Papa Meilland, Blue Perfume, Eiffel Tower, Oklahoma
Characteristics of floribunda are –
There is profuse flowering in this class of roses
The flowers shed faster because of which this class of roses is largely used for decoration and bedding purpose.
The important varieties under this class are as follows
Iceberg, Summer Snow, Margette Maril, Chitchor, Chandrama
Prema, Sadabahar, King Arthur, Bridal Pink
Arthur Bell, Dr. Foun, Allgold, Sea Pearl, Golden Times
Neelambari, Angel Face, Africa Star
Doris Norman, Suryakiran, Jorina, Jambra
Charisma, Mask Red, Paint Box, Nav Sadabahar, Red Gold, Rare Addition
Angel Face, Delhi Princess
Characteristics of polyantha are
The rose plants of this class are small and the flowers come in cluster.
The main varieties of this class are Anjani, Rashmi, Nartaki, Priti, Swati, etc.
The main characteristics of miniature roses are –
The roses are dwarf in stature and the twigs and the leaves are also small.
The flowers of this class are used in flower arrangement
Beauty Secret, Dark Beauty, Fast Fire
Green Ice, Z-Trail, Aany
Windy City, Sweet Fairy, Dizzler
Baby Gold Star, Kale Gold, Delhi Star Late
Silver Tip, Blue Bird
Angel Ripyance, Petayit Foly
Star and Strip, Jainy Williums, Over the Rainbow
The main characteristics of this classes of rose are –
The branches of these roses are soft and spread like climber.
They flower at the end of the branches in small clusters.
They are used for raising over the pergolas and the walls.
The important varieties are as follows:
Red: Climbing Crimson Glory, Blaze, Cocktail, Black Boy
White: Delhi White Pearl, Shelderer White, Rambler, American Pear, Lamark
Pink: Climbing Show Girl, Lady Water Loo, Climbing of Silk, Soft Silk, Climbing Piece, Pink Meradan
Lemon: Miracle Neel, All Gold, Golden Shower, High Moon
Inspite of many varities, more profitable varities to grow are Gladiator, Queen Elizabeth, Bull’s Red, First Red, Happiness, Grand Gala, Confetti, etc.
Propagation in rose cultivation techniques
Methods of Commercial propagation in roses is – is by cutting and budding.
Scented roses are mainly propagated through – cuttings.
Hard wood Cuttings are used in cases of – polyanthas, climbers, ramblers and soft or semi hardwood cuttings for miniatures are used.
Mrthodology of cutting propagation
Cuttings are collected from healthier plants with 15-20 cm length and 3-4 nodes.
Cuttings are treated with IAA, BA 100ppm.
Cuttings are planted in mist chamber for easy and quicker rooting.
The class of flowers mainly propagated through bidding is – Hybrid and Floribunda roses. ‘
Common method of budding is – Y budding
Root stocks used are – R. multiflora, R. indica var. odorata, R. bourboniana, R. laxa, R. canina and R. noisettiana.
Steps in T / Shield Budding are
1. Preparation of buds from Scion
2. Inserting and wrapping of the bud‘
3. T shaped cut in the stem of the stock
Preparation of Beds and pits
The beds or pits for planting are prepared at least a month before the date of planting. The preparation of beds may be taken up during May or June so that the soil gets a thorough exposure to sun and air, and during the rainy season it gets a chance to settle down before planting. The beds are prepared to a depth of 60-75 cm and a trench of 45-60 cm across is dug to 30 cm depth. The trench is again dug and forked. While forking a basketful of well-rotten cow dung manure and a double handful of bone meal may be mixed in the soil.
To improve the heavy clay soil, hydrated lime @ 1.5 kg/sq.m is forked 30 cm deep into the soil at the bottom of the bed.
Gypsum @ ½ kg /sq.m can also be applied. If the soil is light or sandy, plenty of compost or FYM can be added to improve the water-holding capacity.
Pits of size 45 cm 3 can be dug while planting in pits.
Pinching in Roses
Apical portion of shoot if removed early, a large number of axillary shoots arise resulting in well shaped bushy plants bearing more number of uniform flowers.
The removal of shoot apices 40 days after transplanting enhances the flower yield.
Care should be taken to avoid ‘wet feet’, i.e. to avoid stagnation of water too long in the beds or near the base of the plants as it is harmful to the roots.
Suckers originating from the root stock must be removed frequently to prevent the loss of vigour of the plants.
Manuees are applied at a depth of 10 to 15 cms
6:6:12 g NPK/plant – Edward and Red rose
8:8:16 g NPK/plant – HT/Polyanthas/FB
Application in 3 stages
Organic manures- oil cakes and bone meal are excellent sources of N and P respectively and may be applied after pruning.
Plant Growth Regulators
1. GA 3 @ 250 ppm sprayed during the flushing if found very effective to –
Increase the length of the stem/shoot
Increases the no. of shoots/plant
Induces early flowering
Prolongs the flowering period
Enhance the flower yield
2. CCC @ 3% results in more no. of buds and also,
Increase the flowering and size
Increase the yield
Pruning in roses
Remove dead, diseased or damaged wood.
Remove branches that grow towards the centre of the plant
Remove the weakest crossed branch and sucker growth (growth coming from below the bud union)
Shape the plant
Make a cut at 45 degree angle ¼ inch above an outward facing bud.
Time of pruning
Exactly 45 days prior to the date of requirement of flowers during October-December.
Flowering starts from 1st year onwards.
Economic yield 2nd to 10th year.
Flowers are harvested when the flower buds are in half open stage.
For cut flowers, they are harvested at tight bud stage with long stalks.
As soon as the flowers are harvested, the stems are harvested the stems are lowered in to clean buckets containing water with preservative.
The flowers are then cooled down to 2-4 0 C for 5-6 hours.
The flowers are graded according to the length of the flower stalk.
It varies from 40-110cm depending on the variety and packed 20 per bunch.
Loose flowers : 7.5 t/ha
Cut flowers : 1st year : 100-120 flowers/m2
2nd year: 200-240 flowers/m2
3rd year: 300-360 flowers/m2
Pest management in successful rose cultivation
Aphids (Macrosiphum rosae)
This can be effectively controlled by spraying 0.1% Malathion or Metasystox (0.1-0.2%) or Rogor (0.1-0.2%).
Red scale (Lindigapsis rosae)
It is very serious pest of roses which attack mostly in August and September.
These pests can be controlled by spraying Malathion (0.1%) or Parathion (0.25%) in April and again in October.
Chaffer beetles (Onycetonia varsicolor)
This can be controlled by Monocrotophos (1ml/l) or Dimethoate (1.5 ml/l).
Disease Management in successful rose cultivation
Dieback (Diplodia rosarum)
This is a very serious disease of roses and appears after pruning.
The drying up and blackening of pruned shoots start from top to downwards.
The stems become black and die. At the point where dry and healthy twigs meet, there appears brown lining and also black spots appear at these places.
The conditions favourable for the prevalence of the disease include: application of large fertilizers and manure, excessive irrigation and poor drainage facility, incidence of stem borer, continuous incidence of mites, less light penetration.
For its effective control, the infected portion should be dehisced and burnt and the cut ends should be painted with Chaubattia paste (4 part Copper Carbonate + 4 part Red lead + 5 parts linseed oil) or Bordeaux paste, application of optimum dose of fertilizer and by facilitating proper drainage or spray of 3g/ litre of Copper oxychloride (50%).
Black spot (Diplocarpon rosae)
It can be easily controlled by spraying Carbendazim (1g/litre of water) or Captan (0.2%) fungicide at fortnightly intervals.
Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae)
It is a serious disease that occurs when days are warm & nights are cool.
It can be checked by removing all the infected leaves at the time of pruning so that the source of infection is damaged or dusting with 80% Sulphur or spraying 0.1% Kerathane fungicide at fortnightly interval.
Profitable rose cultivation tips
Important tips and best practices for crop cultivation
Always use disease free planting material
Timely weed management should be done.
Flower should be harvested at proper time and stage.
These are distributed to the market in bamboo basket which should be covered under moist muslin
Further readings and references
Handbook of Horticulture