Protected Greenhouse Cultivation of Chrysanthemum
Importance of Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum is grown for cut flower, loose flower, pot mum, hanging baskets and bedding and border plant
It has become popular on account of its excellent vase life, wide range of flower colours and forms and lighter flower weight
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Scientific name of Chrysanthemum is Dendranthema grandiflora
It has origin in Northern hemisphere in China
It is short day plant
Cultivars of chrysanthemum
The important cultivars of chrysanthemum for export are Snow ball, Snow Don White, Mountaineer, Sonar Bangla, Bright golden, Anne, Chandrama, Ajay, Birbal Sahni,
Lehmans, Nanako and Sonali Tara
The important off-season blooming cultivars of chrysanthemum are given below
April-June: Himanshu, Jawala, Jyoti
Sep.-Oct.: Ajay, Sharda
Oct.-Nov.: Makhmal, Megami, Mohini, Sharad har
Nov.-Dec.: Normal season cultivars
Jan.-Feb.: Jaya, Lilith, Suneel, Vasantica.
Sandy-loam soil is required
pH of 6.2-6.7 is ideal for growing chrysanthemum
Light Intensity: 1.2-1.6 MJ/m2 /day,
Photoperiod: less than 9.5 hours
Temperature – night: 10-16 degree Celcius, and day 18-21 degree Celcius
Terminal stem cuttings (4-5 cm) during June-July, and
Suckers during February to April
Planting density and spacing
Greenhouse cut flowers: 40-54 plants/m2
Loose flowers: 30 x 20 cm or 20-25 plants/m2
Standards: 20 x 20 cm
Sprays: 30 x 30 cm
Pot mums: 3-5 cuttings/pot (15 cm)
FYM: 3-5 kg/ m2
N:P:K::30:10:15g/m2 at monthly interval
Loose flowers: FYM: 10-15 ton, N: 150kg, P: 100kg, K:120 kg/ ha)
Spray of light solution of cake + SSP at bud developing stage is very beneficial.
Apply nitrogen through CAN source as urea causes phyto-toxicity.
Twice after 4 and 8 weeks of transplanting
Retain 4-5 shoots in standard and 8-12 shoots in spray cultivars
Remove lateral buds in standard and terminal bud in spray cultivars
Wire mesh, plastic nets, string or bamboo canes are used to support plants. Wire mesh or plastic nets having inner size of 10-15 cm squares are placed on the ground in three
layers, which are erected at 20, 35 and 50 cm above the ground level with the growing
String or rope is erected in three rows at the same distance along the rows. In pots
for standard cultivars single bamboo stick is used and in spray cultivars 3-4 sticks are
placed on the sides to protect the plant.
Soil should have 60-70 per cent moisture. Depending upon weather 8-10 irrigations of 2.5- 5 cm depth are required.
Three-four hand weedings are sufficient. Atrazine @ 1.0 a.i. per hectare is effective before transplanting
When outer row of florets start unfurling for distant market and for local market half opened flowers.
Harvested for local market when two flowers have opened and others have shown
colour, while for distant market when 50% flowers have shown colour
Fully open flowers
50% buds have developed colour.
In bunches of 10, 20 or 25 in corrugated card board boxes of 91 x 43 x 15 cm (L x W x H)
accommodates about 80-100 cut flowers of chrysanthemum
Wrap flower bunches in cellophane sleeves.
Standard: 2.5 to 4.5 lakh/ ha
Spray: 1.5-1.75 lakh/ ha
Yield in Greenhouse: 150-250 flower stems/m2
Further readings and references on Protected Greenhouse cultivation of Chrysanthemum
David Beaulieu. “Chrysanthemums and Hardy Mums – Colorful Fall Flowers”
Chisholm, Hugh, ed.(1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Chrysanthemum. Flora of China. eFloras.