Greenhouse cultivation of Chrysanthemum | Agristudent.com

Protected greenhouse cultivation of chrysanthemum agristudent.com

Protected Greenhouse Cultivation of Chrysanthemum

Importance of Chrysanthemum

Protected greenhouse cultivation of chrysanthemum agristudent.com

Chrysanthemum is grown for cut flower, loose flower, pot mum, hanging baskets and bedding and border plant

It has become popular on account of its excellent vase life, wide range of flower colours and forms and lighter flower weight

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General Information

Scientific name

Scientific name of Chrysanthemum is Dendranthema grandiflora

Origin

It has origin in Northern hemisphere in China

Photoperiod

It is short day plant

Cultivars of chrysanthemum

The important cultivars of chrysanthemum for export are Snow ball, Snow Don White, Mountaineer, Sonar Bangla, Bright golden, Anne, Chandrama, Ajay, Birbal Sahni,
Lehmans, Nanako and Sonali Tara

The important off-season blooming cultivars of chrysanthemum are given below

April-June: Himanshu, Jawala, Jyoti

July-Aug.: Phuhar

Sep.-Oct.: Ajay, Sharda

Oct.-Nov.: Makhmal, Megami, Mohini, Sharad har

Nov.-Dec.: Normal season cultivars

Jan.-Feb.: Jaya, Lilith, Suneel, Vasantica.

Feb.-Mar.: Maghi.

Soil

Sandy-loam soil is required

pH of 6.2-6.7 is ideal for growing chrysanthemum

Climate

Light Intensity: 1.2-1.6 MJ/m2 /day,

Quality: 600-800nm

Photoperiod: less than 9.5 hours

Temperature – night: 10-16 degree Celcius, and day 18-21 degree Celcius

CO2: 500-1000ppm

Propagation

Terminal stem cuttings (4-5 cm) during June-July, and

Suckers during February to April

Planting density and spacing

Greenhouse cut flowers: 40-54 plants/m2

Loose flowers: 30 x 20 cm or 20-25 plants/m2

Standards: 20 x 20 cm

Sprays: 30 x 30 cm

Pot mums: 3-5 cuttings/pot (15 cm)

Fertilizers

FYM: 3-5 kg/ m2

N:P:K::30:10:15g/m2 at monthly interval

Loose flowers: FYM: 10-15 ton, N: 150kg, P: 100kg, K:120 kg/ ha)

Spray of light solution of cake + SSP at bud developing stage is very beneficial.

Apply nitrogen through CAN source as urea causes phyto-toxicity.

Special practices

Pinching

Twice after 4 and 8 weeks of transplanting

De-shooting

Retain 4-5 shoots in standard and 8-12 shoots in spray cultivars

Disbudding

Remove lateral buds in standard and terminal bud in spray cultivars

Staking

Wire mesh, plastic nets, string or bamboo canes are used to support plants. Wire mesh or plastic nets having inner size of 10-15 cm squares are placed on the ground in three
layers, which are erected at 20, 35 and 50 cm above the ground level with the growing
plants

String or rope is erected in three rows at the same distance along the rows. In pots
for standard cultivars single bamboo stick is used and in spray cultivars 3-4 sticks are
placed on the sides to protect the plant.

Irrigation

Soil should have 60-70 per cent moisture. Depending upon weather 8-10 irrigations of  2.5- 5 cm depth are required.

Weeding

Three-four hand weedings are sufficient. Atrazine @ 1.0 a.i. per hectare is effective before transplanting

Harvesting Stages

Standards

When outer row of florets start unfurling for distant market and for local market  half opened flowers.

Sprays

Harvested for local market when two flowers have opened and others have shown
colour, while for distant market when 50% flowers have shown colour

Loose flowers

Fully open flowers

Pot mums

50% buds have developed colour.

Packing

In bunches of 10, 20 or 25 in corrugated card board boxes of 91 x 43 x 15 cm (L x W x H)
accommodates about 80-100 cut flowers of chrysanthemum

Wrap flower bunches in cellophane sleeves.

Yield

Standard: 2.5 to 4.5 lakh/ ha

Spray: 1.5-1.75 lakh/ ha

Yield in Greenhouse: 150-250 flower stems/m2
/year

Further readings and references on Protected Greenhouse cultivation of Chrysanthemum

National Horticulture Board

David Beaulieu. “Chrysanthemums and Hardy Mums – Colorful Fall Flowers”

Chisholm, Hugh, ed.(1911). “Chrysanthemum” . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Chrysanthemum. Flora of China. eFloras.

 

 

 

Author: agristudent

Team Agristudent is a young and dynamic team of Agriculture specialists who have acquired specialised knowledge in their respective subjects. Their mission is to create a unique online encyclopedia of agriculture, which can be useful to millions around the world as an online reference library

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