Potato is one of the most important food crop of the world. It is consumed on a large scale on almost every part of the world.
It is used as a vegetable.
It is also used for making of chips, halwa, gulab jamun, rasgulla, murabha, kheer, guzia and barfi etc.
Botanical name of Potato
Potato was introduced to India from Europe in the beginning of the seventeenth century
Nutritional content in potato
It contains 74.7 per cent water, 22.9 per cent sugar, 0.1 per cent fat, 0.6 per cent mineral matters, 0.01 per cent calcium, 0.03 per cent phosphorus and 0.0007 per cent iron,
Its food value per 100g of edible portion is energy 85 calories, protein 2 g, calcium 13 mg , vitamin A 40 IU, ascorbic acid 12 mg, thiamine 0.11 mg, riboflavin 0.06 mg and niacin 1.18 mg
Raw potato also contain in 100 g, edible portion: Na 3 mg, K 410 mg, Ca 14 mg, Mg 27 mg, Fe 0.8 mg, Cu 0.16 mg, P 56mg, S 29 mg and Cl 35 mg.
Alkaloid in Potato
Alkaloid present in potato tuber is called solanin and develops when exposed to light
It is poisonous compound but 70 per cent of it is removed when potatoes are peeled
This alkaloid may cause sickness or death both to live stock and the human beings.
Medicinal Uses of Potato
It is anti-scorbutic.
Persons with neurotic and liver dyspepsia digest it well.
It is also employed as an, diuretic and galactagogue, nervous sedative and stimulant in gout.
The leaves in the form of extract are employed as an antispamodic in chronic cough
Potato grind into a paste is applied as plaster to burns caused by fire with good results.
The juice of the potato is a dark colored liquid due to the presence of citric and succinic acids.
Mealy potatoes are those in which the cells, on cooking, separate from one another so that they may be piled up in loose flour with air between them instead of remaining in a solid mass with water in the small intercellular spaces.
But this is absent in immature potatoes due to low quantity of starch.
Mealiness and high starch are associated with high specific gravity.
Area and Production
In India, Potato occupies nearly 21 per cent area out if the total area under vegetables and 26 percent production out of the total vegetable production
Apart from India, the other major producers of potato in world are China, Russian Federal, Poland, USA, Ukraine, Germany, Netherlands and UK
Classification of Potatoes
A total of seven cultivated species were domesticated and they remain the most important crop in the high.
The cultivated potatoes species are as given below
|Solanum tuberosum sub sp. tuberosum (2n = 48) (2n =n48)||Cosmopolitan||By artificial selection in Europe, North America and Chile from introduced clones of group 2.|
|S. tuberosum sub sp. andigena (2n = 48)||Venezuela to northern Argentina; also sporadically in central America and Mexico||From group 4 and 5 by spontaneous doubling of the chromosome number.|
|S.chaucha (2n = 36) S. phuerja (2n = 24)||Central Peru to northern Bolivia Venezuela to northern Bolivia||By hybridization between group 2 and 4 and 5. by selection for short tuber dormancy from group 5.|
|S.stentomum (2n=24)||Southern Peru to northern Bolivia||By natural hybridization between wild species followed by artificial selection.|
|S.juzepcsukii (2n=36)||Central peru to southern Bolivia||From crosses of S.acaule with groups of 4 and 5|
|S.curtilobum||Central peru to southern Bolivia||Crosses of S. juzepczukii with group 2.|
The commercial potato generally belong to two species
Solanum andigenum: it is not very common. Plants have thin and long stem, small and narrow leaflets. Flowers are produced more profusely. It has long stolons and mostly coloured deep- eyed tubers.
Solanum tuberosum: It is more common, plants have shorter and thicker stem larger and wider leaflets.
Classification on the basis of duration
|Character||Early potato||Late potato|
|Stolon number||Less number||More number|
|Photoperiodism||Long day for tuber development||Short day for tuber development|
|Varieties||‘Satha’, ‘Gola’, Great Scot’, Kufri Chandramukhi’||‘Phulwa’, ‘Kufri Kissan’,|
1. Kufri Sindhuri- This variety of potato is mainly grown in Bihar, Gujrat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and Jammu Kashmir. This potato crop matures in 110-120 days. This potato can tolerate temperature and water stress at some extent. Medium and deep round eyes. This is moderately resistant to early blight and can tolerate Potato Leaf Roll Virus. Average yield of this potato is 40 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for processing.
2. Kufri Chandramukhi- Mostly grown in Bihar, Gujrat, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. This potato crop matures in 80-90 days. Large, oval, white, slightly flattened, fleet eyes and dull white flesh. Average yield of this potato is 25 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for making instant flakes and chips.
3. Kufri Jyoti- Mostly grown in Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujrat, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and West Bengal. Large and oval in shape and fleet eyes and, white flesh. Average yield of this potato is 20 tonnes per hectare. This potato is moderately resistant to early and late blight disease.
This potato is suitable for processing purpose.
4. Kufri Lauvkar- Mainly grown in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Large and round in shape with fleet eyes and white flesh. Yields faster in warm climate. Average yield is about 30 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for making chips.
5. KufriBadshah- Mostly grown in Jammu Kashmir, Haryana, Punjab, Gujrat, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. This potatao crop matures in 100-110 days. Average yield is about 50 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for cooking.
6. KufriBahar- Mostly grown in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir. Large and round-oval in shape with medium deep eyes. This potato crop matures in 100-110 days. Average yield of this potato is about 45 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for cooking or table purpose.
7. KufriLalima- This potato crop is mostly grown in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Large to medium in size and slightly red colour with medium deep eyes and white flesh. This potato crop matures in 100-110 days and average yield is about 40 tonnes per hectare. This potato is moderately resistant to early blight and resistant to Potato Virus Y.
This potato is not suitable for processing.
8. Kufri Jawahar- Mainly grown in Haryana, Punjab, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Medium in size and round-oval shape and creamy white colour with fleet eyes and pale yellow flesh. This potato crop matures in 80-90 days. And average yield is about 40 tonnes per hectare. This potato is moderately resistant to late blight disease.
This potato is suitable for cooking/table purpose.
9. Kufri Sutlej- This crop is mostly grown in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. Large and oval in shape with fleet eyes and white flesh. This potato crop matures in 90-100 days and yield is about 40 tonnes per hectare. This potato is moderately resistant to late blight disease.
This potato is suitable for table purpose/cooking.
10. Kufri Ashoka- Mostly grown in Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Large and oval-long in shape with fleet eyes and white flesh. This potato crop matures in 70-80 days and average yield is about 40 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for table purpose.
11. Kufri Pukhraj- Mostly grown in Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. Large, oval and slightly tapered in shape with fleet eyes and yellow flesh. This potato crop matures in 70-90 days and average yield is about 40 tonnes per hectare. This potato is resistant to early bight disease and moderately resistant to late blight disease.
This potato is suitable for table purpose.
12. Kufri Chipsona-1- Mostly grown in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Medium to large size and oval in shape with fleet eyes and dull white flesh. This potato crop matures in 90-110 days and average yield is about 40 tonnes per hectare. This potato is resistant to late blight disease and tolerant to frost.
This potato is suitable for making chips and French fries.
13. Kufri Chipsona-2- Mostly grown in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Medium in size and round oval shape with fleet eyes and yellow flesh. This potato crop matures in 90-110 days and average yield is about 35 tonnes per hectare. This potato is resistant to late blight disease and tolerant to frost.
This potato is suitable for preparing chips and French fries.
14. Kufri Anand- Mostly grown in plains Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Medium size and oval-long and flattened in shape with fleet eyes, smooth skin and white flesh. This potato crop matures in 100-110 days and yield is about 35-40 tonnes per hectare.
This potato is suitable for making French fries.
Kufri Lima. It can bear high temperature and is virus resistant and give higher yield in compare to other potato varieties.
Potato is basically cool season crop.
It grows well from sea level to snow line, where sufficient moisture and fertile soil are available.
It is grown in winter in plains of India. However, in northern hills, it is grown as summer season crop.
Potato is a long day plant but cultivated as~ day plant.
It requires favourable environmental conditions such as low temperature and short day conditions at the time of tuberization for rapid bulking rate.
About 20°C temperature is good for tuber formation and it reduces as the temperature increases.
Tuberization is badly affected at about 300C temperature.
At higher temperature, the respiration rate increases and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis are consumed rather than stored in tuber.
High temperatures at any part of growing period affect the size of leaflets, thereby reducing the tuber formation.
It grows best under long day conditions sunshine along with cooler nights are essential for reducing the spread of diseases.
Potato can be produced on a wide range of soils, ranging from sandy loam, silt loam, loam and clay soil.
Soil for potato should be friable, well aerated, fairly deep and well supplied with organic matter.
Well- drained sandy loam and medium loam soils are most suitable for potato cultivation. Soil structure and texture has a marked effect on the quality of the tuber.
Light soil is preferred, because they tend to promote more uniform soil temperatures and make harvesting of the crop easier.
Alkaline or saline soil is not suitable for potato cultivation.
They are well suited to acidic soils (pH 5.0 to 6.5) as acidic conditions tend to limit scab diseases.
Early Crop:Third week of September to first week of October.
Main crop: First week of October to third week of October.
Late Crop: Third week of October to first week of November
II. In Hills:
Potato is planted in hills from the third week of February to second week of April. In the southern hills near Ootacamund in Nilgiris, planting is done three times in a year, i.e. in the month of February,
April and September In the plateau regions of Maharashtra, Bihar Madhya Pradesh, potato is raised in rainy and winter seasons.
In the Mysore plateau, the summer and winter crop is planted in April-June and in October-December, respectively.
Seed Rate, Methods of Sowing and Spacing
The seed requirements for a hectare on the basis of seed size are given below:
Large size- 25-30 q/ha;
Medium size- 15-20 q/ha;
Small size- 10-15 q/ha; Out tubers- 8-12 q/h2:-‘
Potato is planted mainly by two methods:
1. Ridge and Furrow Method: In this method, the ridges are prepared. The length of the ridges depends on slope of the plot. Too long ridges and furrows arc not supplied with irrigation water conveniently. The potato tubers are planted on is let into furrows.
2. Flat Bed Method: In this method, the whole plot is divided into beds of convenient length and width. The shallow furrows are opened and potato tubers are planted at recommended distance. The tubers are covered with the original soil of furrows. When the germination is completed and plants become 10 to 12 cm height, earthing should be done. Suitable plant spacing in relation to potato seed grades are given below:
|Diameter of tuber from longer axis||Planting distance (row x seed)|
|2.5-3.5 cm||50 x 20 cm or 60 x 15 cm|
|3.5-5.0 cm||60 x 25 cm|
|5.0-6.0 cm||60 x 40 cm|
Nutritional Requirements and Their Management
Soils poor in organic matter content should be supplied with 250 – 500 q/ha of farmyard manure or compost during land preparation, preferably a fortnight before planting.
Potato plant is a heavy feeder. When it is grown in medium type of soils, it needs 100 to 150 kg nitrogen, 80 to 100 kg phosphorous and 80 to 100 kg potassium per hectare.
Two – third to three fourth quantity of nitrogen along with whole quantity of phosphorus and potassium is applied at the time of planting. Remaining one fourth to one third nitrogen is applied 30 to 35 days after planting i.e. at the time of first earthing up or when plants become 25 to 30 cm in height either in the form of top dressing or as a foliar feeding.
Spraying of essential micronutrients such as boron, zinc, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum etc. is done when crop is showing deficiency symptoms.
In potato crop, both types of weeds are found i.e. broad-leaved weeds as well as narrow leaved weeds-
The use of weedicides in potato crop in general is not essential because earthing up operation destroy almost all weeds, if some how, weed plants are growing on ridges, they may be pulled out by hands. Pre- emergence application of nitrogen @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha or alachlor @.2.0 kg a.i./ha or post emergence application of propanil @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha may be used ill solution fom1 (800-1000 litre/ha).
Care should be taken while spraying of post- emergence herbicides that they should not come in the contact to potato plants.
Proper development of tubers depends upon aeration, moisture availability and proper soil temperature.
Therefore, proper earthing up is necessary. Earthing should be done when the plants are 15 to 22 cm ill height.
Generally earthing is done at the time of top dressing of nitrogenous fertilizers.
The ridges should be high enough to cover up tubers.
If necessary, a second earthing may be done after two -week of the first one.
A mould board plough or a ridger may be used for earthing up in large area.
Use of Plant Growth Regulators
Soaking of potato seed tuber in CCC at 500 mg/l, increases tuber yield.
Before coming to the planting operation.
It should be kept in mind that the sufficient soil moisture is available for satisfactory sprouting. If not then light pre-irrigation or just after planting may be given.
The rate of water use is low till 30-35 days after planting; it means that the first irrigation is essentially done within 30-35 days after planting.
However, when soil moisture seems insufficient for sprouting, intervals of first irrigation should be reduced.
Further, irrigation is done as and when crop needs.
As regards method of irrigation in potato, the furrow method is commonly followed.
Harvesting, Yield and Storage
Harvested potatoes are heaped under shade for a couple of days, so that their skin becomes hard and soil adhering with them is also separated out.
Under good crop management, 350-450 quintals of marketable potatoes of good quality can be produced from one hectare land.
The sorting operation is the most important, in that all cut tubers, bruised, injured by insects-pest and disease are removed.
Sorted healthy tubers are graded in to different grades based on diameter of the tubers reduce the prices in the market.
Therefore, such tubers should be sorted and marked separately. Over sized tubers are great in demand for chips making.
Very small sized tubers are also not remaining unsold.
These tubers are purchased by poor people for making vegetable by partially Cushing them before cooking.
However, both the over sized and under sized are quite unsuitable for seed purposes.
Potatoes can be stored in the cold storage at the temperatures of 4 to 7 degree C and relative humidity.
Further readings and references