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What is Plant Breeding and what are methods of plant breeding?

Plant breeding can be defined as an art, science, and technology of improving the genetic make up of plants in relation to their economic use for the man kind

Short Introductory Video – plant Introduction

What are the different Methods of Plant breeding?

There are different methods of plant breeding which are enlisted in the image below.

All the plant breeding methods will be described in the subsequent articles

Plant breeding method classification

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Methods of plant breeding used for self, cross and asexually propagated crops

Methods used for breeding self pollinated crops

1. Plant Introduction

2. Pureline selection

3. Mass selection

4. Pedigree method

5. Bulk method

6. Single seed descent method

7. Backcross method

8. Heterosis breeding

9. Mutation breeding

10. Polyploidy breeding

11. Distant hybridization

12. Transgenic breeding

Methods used for breeding cross pollinated crops

1. Plant introduction

2. Mass and progeny selection

3. Backcross method

4. Heterosis breeding

5. Synthetic breeding

6. Composite breeding

7  Polyploidy breeding

8. Distant hybridization

9. Transgenic breeding

Methods used for breeding asexually propagated crops

1. Plant Introduction

2. Clonal selection

3. Mass selection

4. Heterosis breeding

5. Mutation breeding

6. Polyploidy breeding

7. Distant hybridization

8. Transgenic breeding

Introduction – Methods of plant Breeding

The oldest and rapid method of crop imrovement is described here under

1. The breeding method of taking a genotype or a group of genotypes of plants into new environments where they were not being grown before is called as Introduction
2. Popularization of grape cultivation in Haryana, Introduction of wheat in West Bengal and Rice in Punjab are popular examples of introduction
3. The two types of introductions are 1. Primary

2. Secondary

4. When the introduced variety is released for commercial cultivation in the new region / country without any alteration in its genotype, it is termed as Primary introduction

Primary introduction is less common

5. Examples of primary introduction are Introduction of

– semi dwarf wheat varieties like Sonora 64, Lerma Roja

– semi dwarf rice varieties Taichung Native 1 (TN-1), IR-8 and IR-36

History of Introduction

1. Cherries and grapes were introduced into India by the Mughals from Afganisthan
2. Maize, groundnut, chillies, potato, sweet potato, guava pineapple, papaya, cashewnut and Tobacco were introduced into India by the Portugese in the 16th century
3. East India Company brought tea, litchi, and loquat China
4. East India company brough Cabbage, cauliflower and other vegetables from the Mediterranean region
5. East India company brought mohagony from West Indies
6. Quinine and rubber trees were introduced into India from South America
7. Mung mustard, pear, apple and walnut were introduced from Central Asia
8. Sesame, Jowar, arhar, Asian Cotton and finger millet were introduced into India from Africa
9. During the earlier times, the agencies of Introduction were invaders, settlers, traders, travelles, explorers and naturalists

Agencies looking after plant introduction in India

10. The main agency entrusted with the duty introduction and maintenance of germplasm of agricultural and horticultural plants in India is NBPGR (National Beaurau of plant genetic resources), New Delhi eastablished in 1976
11. The organisation which looks after the introduction, maintenance and testing of germplasm of forest trees in India is Forest research institute, Dehradun
12. Collection, storage, maintainence of records of germplasm, set up natural gene sanctuaries of plants where genetic resources are endangered are important functions of NBPGR
13. What are the steps in procedure of plant introduction? Procurement, Quarantine, Cataloguing, evaluation and acclimatization, multiplication & distribution
14. The process that leads to the adaptation of a variety to a new environment is known as acclimatization
15. The process of keeping materials in isolation to prevent the spread of diseases etc. So that all the introduced plant propagules are thoroughly inspected for contamination with weeds, diseases and insect pests is called as Quarantine
16. The oldest and the rapid method of crop improvement is Introduction
17. Plant introduction method of crop improvement is applicable to self, cross and asexually propagated crop plants
18. When an introduction is received, it is given an entry number and information regarding name of the species, variety, place of origin, adaptation and its various characteristics are recorded as EC (Exotic collections)  IC (Indegenous collections), IW (Indegenous wild collections) this entire process is known as Cataloguing

We will be providing such researched and detailed information as above on other plant breeding methods in the subsequent articles

Till then, thorough your knowledge for the method given in this article and take the following Quiz to check your progress..!

Plant Breeding MCQ Quiz – Methods of plant breeding 1

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Plant breeding MCQ Quiz - Plant introduction 1

1 / 17

Pure line selcetion method can be used for which of the following

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In cataloguing,  indian varieties are marked as

3 / 17

In cataloguing,  exotic varieties are marked as

4 / 17

Which of the following is the first stage of introduction method

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Pedigree selection method can be used for which of the following

6 / 17

The stage in which procured material is tagged as EC, IW, and IC is

7 / 17

Plant introduction method can be used for which of the following

8 / 17

The main agency entrusted with the duty introduction and maintenance of germplasm of agricultural and horticultural plants in India is

9 / 17

Maize, groundnut, chillies, potato, sweet potato, guava pineapple, papaya, cashewnut are supposed to be introduced in India by

10 / 17

Heterosis breeding method can be used for which of the following

11 / 17

Clonal selection method can be used for which of the following

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In cataloguing,  indian wild varieties are marked as

13 / 17

The technology of improving the genetic make up of plants for economic use of humans is called

14 / 17

The oldest method of crop improvement is

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Synthetics and composites breeding method can be used for which of the following

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Backcross breeding method cannot be used for which of the following

17 / 17

The organisation which looks after the introduction, maintenance and testing of germplasm of forest trees in India is

 

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