Garden peas cultivation |

Pisum sativum

What are Garden peas?

Pisum sativum

Garden peas are most commonly green and occasionally golden yellow pod-shaped vegetable widely grown as a cool season vegetable crop

Garden pea is Botanically known as Pisum sativum

It belongs to Family Leguminaseae and has chromosome number of 2n= 14

The origin of garden pea is believed to be Ethiopea

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What is the importance of Garden pea?

Garden pea is rich in digestable protein, vitamin A and C

it is also rich in minerals like calcium, potassium, iron and phosphorus

Fresh green pea is excellent food for human consumption taken as vegetable or in soup large proportion of pea are processed either canned, frozen, dehydrated

The straw of pea is a nutritious fooder

The pea protein is moderately deficient in sulphur containing amino acids methionine, cysteine

What are climatic and soil requirements of Garden pea?


It is a crop of cooler season

The Optimum temperature for seed germination is 22 degree C but seeds can germinate at temperature as low as 5 degree C.

Pea is not susceptible to cold but severe frost causes injury to freshly opened flowers and young pods

Pods grow best the regions where there is slow transition from cool to warm weather


Pea can be grown on many types of soils from light sandy to clay soils

Highly organic soils are unsuitable for pea as their moisture reserve leads to excess vegetative growth and poor pod formation

It is very sensitive to saline and alkaline conditions and Most favourable range of pH is between 6 to 7.5

What are different varieties of garden pea?

Alderman: suitable for freezing.

Arkel: early wrinkled seeded variety introduced from England

Asauji: this was a selection from the material. Collected from Amritsar area made by IARI, New Delhi

Bonneville: wrinkled seeded variety introduced from US

Early badger: dwarf early wrinkled seeded variety evolved at Wisconsin. Resistant to fusarial wilt

What is the seed rate, sowing time, sowing method etc for garden pea?

Time of sowing

Pea is grown generally as a rabi crop

It is sown from the beginning of October to middle of November

In the hills of South India the crop is sown from March to May

In Darjeeling it is sown from June to August

Seed rate and sowing time

If sowing are done in ridges and furrows method, seed rate adopted is 50 to 60 kg per ha.

Seed rate also varies with growth habit of varieties for early varieties 100 to 120 kg per ha

Mid late varieties 80 to 90 kg per ha is the general recommendation

Seeds can be sown on flat beds or raised beds either by broadcasting or behind the plough

Seeds are also drilled through poras (Tubes attached to deshi plough)

Depth of sowing

5 to 7.5 cm


30 cm x 5 cm

What aftercare should be taken for garden pea cultivation?

Manuring and fertilizers

Well decomposed FYM is applied at a dosage of 8 to 10 t/ha at least 15 days before sowing

NPK should be applied in the ratio of 30: 50: 25 kg per ha

Foliar application of 0.1% ammonium molybdate is given to increase the number of root nodules, yield and number of grains per pod


Crop requires 2 or 3 irrigations

First irrigation is given 40 DAS

second irrigation at bloom stage 60 DAS

Method of irrigation  to be followed is furrow method

Inter culture

Herbicides may be used like  lasso (alachlor) at the rate of 0.75 kg a.i./ha, basalin at the rate 2 kg a.i./ha

How is garden pea harvested?

Generally 3 to 4 pickings are to be given in the season

For good quality of produce harvesting should be done either early in morning or late in the afternoon

Quality is ascertained by tenderometer or motovometer

Usually periodical pickings 6 to 8 day interval are taken

Care should be taken not to jerk the plants till they get injured

Harvesting is generally done by manual method employing female pickers is advisable compared to males

Green pods are packed in gunny bags or baskets

How much is yield of garden pea?

Early varieties 30 to 40 Q/ha

Late and Mid season varieties 60 to 70 Q/ha

grain yield about 15 to 20 Q per ha

What is shelling percentage in Garden pea?

Shelling percentage is 35 to 50 depending on variety, agro-climatic conditions, and management practices

How should garden peas be stored?

Fresh unshelled pea can be stored for 2 weeks at a temperature of 32 degree F at Relative humidity of 85 to 90%

Peas can also be stored in crushed ice for about 2 to 3 weeks

Further readings and references

Handbook of Hoeticulture

Author: agristudent

Team Agristudent is a young and dynamic team of Agriculture specialists who have acquired specialised knowledge in their respective subjects. Their mission is to create a unique online encyclopedia of agriculture, which can be useful to millions around the world as an online reference library

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