What are Garden peas?
Garden peas are most commonly green and occasionally golden yellow pod-shaped vegetable widely grown as a cool season vegetable crop
Garden pea is Botanically known as Pisum sativum
It belongs to Family Leguminaseae and has chromosome number of 2n= 14
The origin of garden pea is believed to be Ethiopea
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What is the importance of Garden pea?
Garden pea is rich in digestable protein, vitamin A and C
it is also rich in minerals like calcium, potassium, iron and phosphorus
Fresh green pea is excellent food for human consumption taken as vegetable or in soup large proportion of pea are processed either canned, frozen, dehydrated
The straw of pea is a nutritious fooder
The pea protein is moderately deficient in sulphur containing amino acids methionine, cysteine
What are climatic and soil requirements of Garden pea?
It is a crop of cooler season
The Optimum temperature for seed germination is 22 degree C but seeds can germinate at temperature as low as 5 degree C.
Pea is not susceptible to cold but severe frost causes injury to freshly opened flowers and young pods
Pods grow best the regions where there is slow transition from cool to warm weather
Pea can be grown on many types of soils from light sandy to clay soils
Highly organic soils are unsuitable for pea as their moisture reserve leads to excess vegetative growth and poor pod formation
It is very sensitive to saline and alkaline conditions and Most favourable range of pH is between 6 to 7.5
What are different varieties of garden pea?
Alderman: suitable for freezing.
Arkel: early wrinkled seeded variety introduced from England
Asauji: this was a selection from the material. Collected from Amritsar area made by IARI, New Delhi
Bonneville: wrinkled seeded variety introduced from US
Early badger: dwarf early wrinkled seeded variety evolved at Wisconsin. Resistant to fusarial wilt
What is the seed rate, sowing time, sowing method etc for garden pea?
Time of sowing
Pea is grown generally as a rabi crop
It is sown from the beginning of October to middle of November
In the hills of South India the crop is sown from March to May
In Darjeeling it is sown from June to August
Seed rate and sowing time
If sowing are done in ridges and furrows method, seed rate adopted is 50 to 60 kg per ha.
Seed rate also varies with growth habit of varieties for early varieties 100 to 120 kg per ha
Mid late varieties 80 to 90 kg per ha is the general recommendation
Seeds can be sown on flat beds or raised beds either by broadcasting or behind the plough
Seeds are also drilled through poras (Tubes attached to deshi plough)
Depth of sowing
5 to 7.5 cm
30 cm x 5 cm
What aftercare should be taken for garden pea cultivation?
Manuring and fertilizers
Well decomposed FYM is applied at a dosage of 8 to 10 t/ha at least 15 days before sowing
NPK should be applied in the ratio of 30: 50: 25 kg per ha
Foliar application of 0.1% ammonium molybdate is given to increase the number of root nodules, yield and number of grains per pod
Crop requires 2 or 3 irrigations
First irrigation is given 40 DAS
second irrigation at bloom stage 60 DAS
Method of irrigation to be followed is furrow method
Herbicides may be used like lasso (alachlor) at the rate of 0.75 kg a.i./ha, basalin at the rate 2 kg a.i./ha
How is garden pea harvested?
Generally 3 to 4 pickings are to be given in the season
For good quality of produce harvesting should be done either early in morning or late in the afternoon
Quality is ascertained by tenderometer or motovometer
Usually periodical pickings 6 to 8 day interval are taken
Care should be taken not to jerk the plants till they get injured
Harvesting is generally done by manual method employing female pickers is advisable compared to males
Green pods are packed in gunny bags or baskets
How much is yield of garden pea?
Early varieties 30 to 40 Q/ha
Late and Mid season varieties 60 to 70 Q/ha
grain yield about 15 to 20 Q per ha
What is shelling percentage in Garden pea?
Shelling percentage is 35 to 50 depending on variety, agro-climatic conditions, and management practices
How should garden peas be stored?
Fresh unshelled pea can be stored for 2 weeks at a temperature of 32 degree F at Relative humidity of 85 to 90%
Peas can also be stored in crushed ice for about 2 to 3 weeks
Further readings and references
Handbook of Hoeticulture