How does drought affect crops? | Agristudent.com

What is drought?

Drought plants

  • When the deficiency of water in soil and atmosphere is so severe that it stops plant growth, then this condition is called as drought.
  • There are broadly two categories of drought

1. Soil drought and

2. Atmospheric drought

How does drought affect the crops?

  • The crop plant is affected physiologically in the following way due to drought
  • The starch dries up from the wilting plant parts and sugar starts accumalating
  • The starch in the guard cells and  mesophyll cells of stomata dries up due to which the stomata close
  • The stomata perform a major function of CO2 diffusion. Since the stomata are severely affected by drought, there is reduction in photosynthetic activity of leaves
  • The osmotic pressure in plant cells increases due to which permeability of water in plants increases in drought conditions
  • Protein synthesis is severely affected during drought conditions
  • Drought makes plants to complete their lifecycle in short time when the environment is favourable. Such plants are called ephimerals or drought escaping plants
  • Drought brings about morphological adaptations for reducing transpiration such as thick cuticle, reduced leaf area so that plants do not loose their large accumalated water during drought period. Such plants are called succulent plants
  • Drought makes some plants develop xerophytic adaptations like greyish colour, reflecting surfaces, smaller leaves, extensive root system, leaf fall during dry season, sunken stomata and thick cuticle etc
  • Drought enduring plants develop various physiological and protoplasmic characters like increased permeability, increased imbibition power, elasticity, small vacuoles, higher osmotic pressure etc.

 

 

 

 

Author: agristudent

Team Agristudent is a young and dynamic team of Agriculture specialists who have acquired specialised knowledge in their respective subjects. Their mission is to create a unique online encyclopedia of agriculture, which can be useful to millions around the world as an online reference library

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