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Brinjal Seed Production

Brinjal seed production

Botany

Brinjal is often cross pollinated crop

Brinjal flower opens mainly in morning and A few flower open at 16 hr

Anther dehiscence occurs 15‑20 minutes after flowers have opened

The period of receptivity ranges from a day prior to flower opening to 4 days after opening

Brinjal produces 4 types of flowers with different style length

1. Long style,

2. short style,

3. medium style and

4. pseudo short style

For seed production and better yield, the long and medium style is desirable

To increase the production of long and medium style application of more nitrogen or spraying of growth regulators during preflowering and flowering stages may be followed

Method of seed production 

Seed to Seed

Stages of seed productions

1. Breeder seed

2. Foundation Seed I

3  Foundation Seed II

4. Certified Seed.

Isolation Rquirements

Brinjal is partially self and cross pollinated but self pollination is more common

There are 0 to 48 percent chances of natural cross pollination in brinjal depending on the insect activity.

Isolation distance of at least 200 m for foundation seed production and 100m for certified seed production is specified.

Source of seed material

Seed material snoild be obtained from the source approved by seed certification agency

Seed Rate

Varieties – 400 ‑ 500 g/ha

Hybrids – 200 g/ha (Female) – 50 g/ha (Male)

Best time of Sowing of seed in nursery

Sowing time should be adjusted in such a way that maturity should not be coincide with rains

The brinjal seed production can be taken up in the following 2 seasons – May‑June and December‑ January.

The winter crop needs special protection from frost

Size of nursery beds

2 to 2.5 m length x 1 to 1.25 m width x 15 to 20 cms height

Twenty five beds of above specifications will raise enough seedlings to plant one hectare

Time of Transplanting of seedlings

The seedlings should be transplanted when they are of 12-15cm height

Spacing in field

Spacing for

1. non spreading type is 60 x 60 m

2. Spreading type 75 x 60 cm

Field inspection

A minimum of three field inspections are required

1. First inspection should be done at vegetative stage so as to verify isolation distance presence of volunteer plants and other requirements

The offtypes at this stage can be identified by morphological characters

2. Second and third should be done at flowering

3. Third inspection is done at fruiting stage

At this stage offtypes can be identified by colour of the flower, fruit shape , size etc

Roguing

At least three roguings should be done

1. First roguing should be done at vegetative stage

Offtypes at this stage can be identified by plant type, leaf shape, leaf colour, presence of thorns etc.

2. second roguing should be done at flowering stage

3. third roguing should be done at fruiting stage

Remove all the diseased plants at each stage of the crop growth

Harvesting

Brinjal fruits are allowed to mature beyond the edible stage before harvesting for seed purpose

Seeds obtained from the fruits harvested at completely yellow color stage recorded the highest fruit seed yield per hactare and germination

Seed Extraction

The graded fruits are cut in 2‑3 pieces or whole fruits will be put in a cement tank with water and crushed manually and then allow it for fermentation for 1‑2 days

Then the floating pulp portions are to be removed, the seeds settled at the bottom should be collected and washed with water and then the seeds with equal volume of water is treated with commercial Hydrochloric acid @ 3‑5 ml/kg of seed

The mixture is kept for 10‑15 minutes with frequent stirring

Then the treated seeds are to be washed with water for 3‑4 times

Afterwards seeds are dried under shade for 2‑3 days over a tarpaulin and followed by sun drying for 1‑2 days to reduce the seed moisture content to 8 per cent

Then the seeds are cleaned and graded with BSS 12 sieve

The processed seeds are treated with fungicides or Halogen mixture @ 5g/kg of seed

Seed yield

100 – 120 kg/ha

Storage

The seeds dried to safe moisture content after treating either with captan or thiram @ 2 g/kg can be stored for 15 months in moisture vapour pervious containers, while it can be stored in moisture vapour proof containers for 30 months

Hybrid Seed Production

Process

In brinjal hybrid seed is produced by manual emasculation and pollination technique

The variety which gives large fruits and more number of seeds per fruit should be taken as female parent

The male and female parent should be planted in separate blocks by following the same management practices

The planting ratio of female and male parents adopted for hybrid seed production is normally 5:1 or 6:1

Before hybridization program starts remove all the offtypes from both male and female parental lines

During hybridization select a flower bud in female parent which opens next day morning and the emascualtion should be done in the evening time between 3.00 to 6.0 PM

After emascualtion the flower buds should be bagged with a butter paper bag to avoid contamination

Next day morning bring the male flowers and pollinate the emsaculated flower buds between 7.00 to 11.00 AM

After pollination the crossed flower bud should be bagged and a tag should be attached at the pedicel

At the time of harvesting collect all the crossed fruits along with the tag and extract the seed

Seed standard for Variety and Hybrids

Ssed standards used in brinjal seed production are as follows

Brinjal seed production